Luke 2:41-52 — Jesus grows up

Reading: Luke 2:41-52

One thing I’ve noticed is that if I want to sit down and read a biography of Jesus, there are a lot of questions that we really have no answers for. We know when we celebrate Jesus’ birthday, by tradition — but, I cannot demonstrate that we chose the right date. While we can pretty solidly say that we know when Jesus died, and scripture tells us that Jesus started his ministry at 30, there is some debate about which year Jesus was born, some, such as the 2nd century Christian writer Irenaeus, feeling that because scripture only mentions 3 Passovers, Jesus’ ministry only lasted 3 years and others noticing that it seems odd to say to a 32 year old: “But you are not yet 50,” and taking that to mean that by that point he’d been in public ministry for well over a decade.

I know what the gospels look like if you edit them all into a single narrative, because Tatian also did this in the early 2nd century. Even if this were not done then; somebody would have created the unified narrative at some point; because as long as we’ve had the gospels, people have been talking about how they are the same, how they are different, and how our understanding of Christ can be informed by each one.

What I notice when reading such a unified narrative is that it is not what I expect from a biography — of course we use the term Gospel, good news, to describe these stories of Jesus. A biography and good news are something that are entirely different; so, when we want biographical details, we end up filling in missing details from these hints. When Irenaeus read the gospel, he made this application:

For He came to save all through means of Himself— all, I say, who through Him are born again to God — infants, and children, and boys, and youths, and old men. He therefore passed through every age, becoming an infant for infants, thus sanctifying infants; a child for children, thus sanctifying those who are of this age, being at the same time made to them an example of piety, righteousness, and submission; a youth for youths, becoming an example to youths, and thus sanctifying them for the Lord. So likewise He was an old man for old men, that He might be a perfect Master for all.

Currently, there are few who currently believe that Jesus was over 50 when he was crucified, but this is a third generation Christian scholar. Even then, there was a range of views about how old Jesus was when he died, ranging from he died at 30, the same year he was baptized to the view that he was over 50 at the crucifixion. Irenaeus was born to Christian parents, and was taught by Polycarp, who was taught by the Apostle John. Irenaeus was one of the earliest theologians to offer a theory about how salvation works — that Jesus sanctified our humanity by being God while living as a human — and even then, some pretty significant biographical details were lost. Obviously, the year Jesus was born and the details of his childhood and education were not something that is vital to the gospel.

Now, I enjoy this sort of speculation, I engage in it from time to time — but, the point is that the gospels do not provide us with a dated itinerary.  We have a better knowledge of the end of Jesus’ life than first 30 years. I personally don’t subscribe to Jesus being 50 when he was crucified, but I think it is likely that his ministry covered more than the 3 Passovers mentioned in the gospels.

The story of Jesus getting lost at the temple is one of the places where my mind really starts writing biographical fiction; my speculation goes something like this:

After Jesus’ parents returned from Egypt and made a home in Nazareth, they made it a point to spend every Passover in Jerusalem. Once a year, they and everybody else in town who had that custom would spend 4 days walking to Jerusalem. Now, Joseph was a poor man; when he gave a sacrifice, it was the alternative for the poor, he was displaced having been a political refugee in Egypt, and then relocating to Galilee. Back even before the first Temple was built a tax was established — 10% was given so that the public could celebrate. Without this tax, there would be no way that such a large community could move down the road, and that even the poor could celebrate Passover in Jerusalem — but it is possible, and this was the greatest celebration of the year — the celebration of the people of Israel becoming a free people.

Passover marks the beginning of the year — this was Jesus’ last Passover as a child. Soon it would be time for Jesus to be apprenticed in the trade that he would be in for the rest of his life — at the moment it seems likely that he would formally be apprenticed by his father and become a carpenter.

Something unexpected happened in Jerusalem; Jesus was noticed. Jesus got into a conversation about Torah with some adults, and it turned out that they found the thoughts of this child were remarkable. He got lost in discussion and study, and the group from Nazareth left without him — unfortunately this meant when Mary and Joseph realized he was not with the group, they had to turn around and go back and find him.

When they found him, they found him with the teachers, they called him back because it was past time to go home. The journey would be extra hard for them, because they would need to either make up for lost time, or they would need to travel alone. Mary and Joseph scolded Jesus for this, but he answered: “Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house.”

I imagine that this trip changed everything. Jesus was noticed. Jesus asserted his identity as somebody other than a Carpenter’s son. The best we can do following the gospels is a scene change that reads: 18 years later and jump’s to the Baptism of Jesus — but, we still have some hints; Jesus didn’t make a major public appearance until he was about 30, and when he was addressed, he was addressed as Rabbi.

If I were to translate Rabbi into English, Teacher would be accurate enough, Great one would be more literal, but I think I would do better to translate it “Doctor.” When we see this term used, we see it used to refer to leaders, and teachers, and great scholars. In order to understand what this word means, we have to know where it came from.

The Babylonian wise men were given the title “Rab” (great) — these were the leaders who had gone on to become teachers. The Sanhedrin borrowed this term, and gave the term Rabbi to those scholars who were recognized as being authorities in the law and prophets, able to teach and to judge according to Torah Law. When Jesus was called Rabbi, it meant something — and I suggest that it meant that 12 year old Jesus was discovered by the scholarly elite, and somebody sponsored him, and made him a student of the law. The 18 or so years between 12 and “about 30″ were likely spent in study, until the Sanhedrin were sure they could recognize his ability to teach and to judge.

I don’t know if I am right — but, if Jesus was not trained in the law as a scholar and a judge, then Rabbi was used ironically — and who knows Ph.D.’s to call somebody without credential’s “Doctor?” In general, people like to think that the honors they achieve mean something, and using a title that was not earned in an ironic sense does not help that thinking. Even in the sense of an honorary degree, one lists that in the resume as a reward and not a credential — and, the person who earned an honorary doctorate is not called Doctor.

So, in my imagination, this little moment at 12 years old could be a crisis point in a biography, instead of an isolated story. Maybe this moment set everything else into motion. The truth is that we see only a little bit of the story, and unfortunately attempts to write the biography of Jesus where we fill in the details ends up with us speculating about teenage Jesus arguing with the sons of the Pharisees, so we are left with “18 years later” and a scene change.

What we do know is just before Jesus became an adult, he impressed the religious leaders and scholars, he lost track of time, and he asserted his identity as something other than the son of a Carpenter. We know that when Jesus left his childhood, he had at least a little bit of an understanding that his life was something other than the life of a Jewish peasant in a Roman province. I don’t know what happened when they got home, all I see is 18 years later — but, it is something that sparks my curiosity.

Luke 2:21-40 — Signs and Prophecies

One thing I enjoy about the prologue of Luke is how much it reminds me of the Old Testament. Luke begins with births that are announced by angels, two women getting pregnant who shouldn’t, and two men destined for great things. Luke begins with the promise of restoration that has been with Hebrew people since the Babylonian captivity. Not only is there the promise of restoration, but there is a kind of good news for the poor that makes Shepherds into the first prophets to announce Christ. Luke tells the story in such a way that we are reminded of Abraham and Sarah — and the birth of Isaac; we are reminded of Hannah and the birth of the prophet Samuel, and Manoah and the birth of Sampson. The prologue makes it clear that this Jesus fellow is going to be somebody who changes everything.

Today is the day that Catholics celebrate the “Feast of the Holy name,” which used to be called the “feast of the circumcision.” On January 1, the eighth day of Christmas, Catholics observe what is written in Luke 2:21: “After 8 days had passed, it was time to circumcise the child; and he was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.”

It is at this point that we meet to prophets, Simeon and Anna. Simeon received God’s promise that he would live to see the messiah — and he identified Jesus as this Messiah, and he made a prediction of the child’s life to the parents. It must have been rather shocking to see an old man take the baby and say: “God, I can die now, because I’ve seen the salvation of all, and Your revelation to the gentiles.” It must have been somewhat difficult for Mary to listen to him prophecy that Jesus would show the truth about people, causing many to fall — that His sign would be opposed, and that Mary’s soul would be pierced. After Simon, we meet the prophet 84 year old prophet Anna who praised God and spoke to everybody who was looking for the redemption of Israel about the child.

The first few chapters of Luke are absolutely amazing. Angels appear to Mary, her cousin Elizabeth, and to shepherds. Elizabeth, a woman thought to be barren becomes pregnant with a child that is prophesied by an angel — and, as a further sign, the child’s father becomes mute until the child is born. This child, who is to be named John, recognizes Jesus even before he is born.

While Luke does not go through the history of Israel, it does give Anna’s age. At 84 years old, the prophet Anna would have seen quite a bit. When she was born, Israel was an independent kingdom, ruled by a priest-king. Hanukkah was a celebration of the retaking and re-dedication of the temple, however these events lead to driving out the Greeks and becoming an independent kingdom. This independent kingdom fell apart as Judah fell into a civil war over which brother would sit on the throne next in 63 AD. Not surprisingly, one of the brothers asked Rome for help, and Judah became a client-state to Rome. As her life continued, she saw Rome replace the Priest-king with Herod the Great, and saw Herod kill the whole family, except for a princess that he married; and then she’d see Herod making a great effort to complete and expand the temple, so that it would be as great as the first temple… and she would see Jerusalem become something much greater than it was when she was a girl, although it would be ruled by foreigners.
While Luke dose not tell us when she was married, it tells us that she was married 7 years before her husband died, and she lived as a widow. Considering her age, it is very possible that she became a widow about the time that Judah lost it’s status as an independent state. Rome attacked and conquered Jerusalem in 63 BC — and it is easy to imagine that the prophet Anna was a war-widow.

This woman was not only a prophet, but she was a person who saw a couple brothers destroy the nation due to their own sibling rivalry. She watched the great leaders, who represented not only the government, but God’s will — and who’s line seemed to be established by God, destroy the nation. She watched as the person who made Jerusalem great, and the Temple a worthy structure was also cruel, petty, murderous, and insecure in his position — perhaps this is partially because Herod was an Edomite from a God-fearing family — who was only made king to reward his loyalty to Rome in a past war. Remember in Matthew, we see Herod slaughtering all the infants in Bethlehem: maybe 20 babies, because one of these babies was from David’s line, and called “king” by the magi — Herod also killed the dynasty that ruled before him, and even his adult children when he felt threatened because they had a better claim to the throne than he did due to their mother being a princess.

Whatever the reason, this woman had seen quite a bit: independence, civil war, occupation, and petty tyranny. When Jesus came to the temple, Anna recognized him as being something great and new, she saw him as being the redemption of Jerusalem. It is clear she saw that Jerusalem needed more than to be a great city, with a beautiful temple.

This is what is great about the “prologue” of Luke — it gives us a lot of hints about what is needed in the new Messiah. Many are looking for a new king that will drive out the Romans, and by extension drive out the current local government that collaborates with Rome — but the truth is that there were people alive who saw what happens with political Messiah’s — they die, and things change. Jesus did not come to save the government, but to bring salvation to the people. He did not come to bring good news to those who would become the new elite at the expense of the old elite, but instead to bring good news to the poor. The truth of the gospel is found in the name Jesus — which, is how Joshua comes back to us when it goes through the Greek language first; God is our salvation.

Jeremiah 29:1-14: Pray for Babylon

Reading: Jeremiah 29:1-14

Last week I spoke on Psalm 146, and talked to everybody who had hope that they might get their way in the election. Needless to say, I had no idea who would win; but what I said last week still matter. There were no saviors on our ballot, and we don’t need a political savior. I also reminded everybody that the United States has some dark points in our history, and that we have survived these dark times with our nation in tact. Whatever prophecies of gloom we might have seen are likely exaggerations.

This week, I want to talk to those of you who are disappointed in the outcome of the election. I planned to give this message before knowing the outcome of the election. I have decided on the text before I cast my ballot. The thing is about this election is that we elected a man who is opposed by 2/3 of our population. Only 1/4 of registered voters marked “Donald Trump” on their ballots, and it is difficult to say how many of these made this choice with disgust, knowing that if they didn’t Hillary Clinton might win.

The thing is, if the election turned out differently, I could have swapped names and it would have still been true. This is a truly odd election year where both major parties chose candidates who have disapproval ratings above 60%. There were a large number of people on both sides who held their nose while making a choice. In the end I knew that no matter who won, a large number of people would be disappointed in the results, and I know that any Christian leader who is honest will not be able to say we have a great ally in the White House.

I won’t list our next President’s personal problems;  I will simply pray that these do not become an issue in his presidency, I will however tell you about one of our nation’s personal problems: people have differing views on what it means that Trump won the presidency. Some voted because of Trump’s short list for the vacant Supreme court seat. Some voted Trump, or didn’t vote Hillary because he spoke to the concerns of Labor, often in a way that is at odds with the Republicans in congress. Some voted for Trump, because they felt he represented the values of White Nationalists. This last one, the KKK vote is very much a personal problem in our nation. I’m not going to say that it is a huge population, but unfortunately, these people assume that the election of Trump means that real Americans think like the KKK; similarly unfortunate are Trumps opponents who often think the same thing making real conversation and compromise impossible.

This issue has lead to problems which, if you remember started before the election. Unfortunately, some of our racist minority have taken it on themselves to vandalize places of worship, harass and threaten people, there has also been some reports of physical assault. There has been some of that here, and some people close to me have been harassed because of their skin tone in the days since the election. On the other side, there were significant protests against the election results in various cities. USA Today describes these protests as “mostly peaceful”, but it also told about the dozens of protesters who were not, and had to be arrested. I find it disturbing that I live in a world where acts of violence and vandalism are carried out both by those who feel the election validated their views, and by those who are deeply opposed to the winning candidate. This is not not the way Americans act at elections time: no, to quote Hillary Clinton: “Our constitutional democracy enshrines the peaceful transfer of power, and we don’t just respect that, we cherish it.”

My point is, no matter how you voted, there is a good chance that this nation feels different than the America you know and love. I know that it feels different to me. I know it feels different to a lot of people. In general, we love our country, we are proud of our country, and we believe our land to be one of ideals, principles, and hope. We do not expect violence on election day, nor do we expect violence following election day. Today many live in fear: Some live in fear because they are minorities who are targets of anti-minority violence and harassment. Others live in fear because we are facing people who set things on fire hoping somebody will change what has already been decided. No matter what side you are on, the fear that somebody will decide to contest the ballots with bullets is very real.

To be honest, I had to admit long ago that Paul was right when he wrote to the Philippians saying: “Our citizenship in in Heaven.” We are resident aliens of this kingdom of earth. Christianity is far too important, and far too enduring to be co-opted for a political agenda. The truth is, Christ and Paul have nothing to say on how a government should be run; the message in our Bible is a message of how to live in a nation with a different basis for justice than we have and one that was at times hostile to Christians. As Christians, we are truly in our traditional element when we have a message that invites people to be better than the world they live in. What is happening is less than idea, and I miss the nation I remember but I get to look to scripture to help me know what to do. Now, how do we live in such a world?

I personally take the advice that Jeremiah offered to the exiles in Babylon to heart. I admit that there really is no way out of the reality we live it; there is not a political messiah coming that will restore Christianity to America through politics, and we will spend our lifetime living in a secular nation that, whether good or bad, will never really embrace our faith or our values.

Jeremiah’s advice to those who had no choice but to live in Babylon was to live in it. They were to have children, make a home, work, and live a generally normal life. They were not called to overthrow the actually hostile government, but instead to pray for the government and for the prosperity of the city of Babylon. When Jeremiah told the Jews God’s plan was to prosper them, he meant God wanted to prosper them in Babylon.

Here is the thing I learn reading scripture. No matter what we think of our government, our role remains the same:  live the best lives we can. We need to be a blessing to our neighbors, do right by our families, and work for not only our well being but the well being of our neighbors — even the neighbors we disagree with. Jeremiah didn’t call for a revolution, or a fight to win freedom, he called for assimilation and for people to live normal mundane lives that made the world just a little better because they are in it. We love stories of heroes who do great things  but most of us are not heroes, and the accomplishments of normal people are greater than the accomplishments of great leaders. Jesus called us to be salt and light and we are that simply by living the way Jesus taught us;  by making love the rule of our lives. No matter what we think of our nation, it is not right to set it on fire, or hope that our leaders fail. The truth is, we are all in the same boat, so no matter what we think of the Captain.  We want to get to port without sinking. Remember as the nation we live in prospers, we also prosper.

I know none of this is new to you, but I’m going to invite all of you to do one thing that the Jews were told to do for Babylon to pray for the peace and prosperity of the city to pray that it be well governed. If you see our president, or the next one as being Nebuchadnezzar, so be it, but we are still commanded to pray and to work for the good of the place we live in.

Like the results of the election — our first response is clear, so let us respond: let us pray:

  • For the peace and prosperity of the United States, let us pray to the Lord
  • For President Barack Obama, and his successor Donald Trump, let us pray to the Lord
  • For our congressmen and judges, let us pray to the Lord
  • For the peace and prosperity of Indiana, let us pray to the Lord
  • For Governor Mike Pence, and his successor Eric Holcomb, let us pray to the Lord
  • For the peace and prosperity of Henry County and Knightstown, let us pray to the Lord
  • For the County commission and city council, let us pray to the Lord
  • For our policemen and firefighters, let us pray to the Lord
  • For our schools and our educators, let us pray to the Lord
  • For those who serve our community, let us pray to the Lord
  • For the poor and sick in our community, let us pray to the Lord
  • For Raysville Friends church, let us pray to the Lord

Psalm 146: Do not put your faith in presidents

Reading: Psalm 146

I am going to start this message with a public service announcement. I know that our presidential candidates are not likely to bring people to the polls — and I know that this year, Indiana isn’t exactly a swing state, but remember this year is an important election year. The governor’s race is competitive; and in my experience what the State government does is more important in my daily life than what the federal government does. In federal elections, the Senate race is nearly tied the last time I looked at the polls. Not only is the Senate race here competitive, but our vote may very well determine which party controls the Senate: For those who care about federal appointments such as the supreme court, the vote for Senator is more important here in Indiana than the vote for president. Nothing is a sure thing this year, the decision will be made according to who shows up to vote — So, remember to vote Tuesday — polls are open from 6:00 AM until 6:00 PM.

Of course, I also want to remind you that while elections are important, there is no candidate on the ballot that is able to save our nation. I also want to remind you that there is also no candidate that is so terrible that our nation cannot survive his or her election. I’ve heard people on both sides suggest that if the wrong person wins, it will be the end of our nation; I personally think this is unlikely. Even more shockingly, when I was reading an article in Charisma, I read an op-ed by a “prophet” who said that Donald Trump is anointed to be president by God.  (Of course, he also said God told him Cleveland would win the World Series because Chicago votes Democrat, so I really cannot take him seriously.)  I can assure you there is no messiah on the ballot — and, anyone looking for a messiah in a political election has just created their own personal anti-Christ. If you need clarification the prefix anti does not always mean against — sometimes it means an alternative. An example of this is in church history there have been anti-popes. What this means is that more than one pope was elected, and when we name which election is legitimate, the others stand as alternatives. Jesus Christ is our legitimate messiah, so when somebody calls for another one that is to me, in this sense, an antichrist.

Of course, my point is that when we look a mortal to be our Savior, we are looking in the wrong place. As important as things like elections are, there are much more important things. No matter who our governor is, and no matter who our president is — we still choose for ourselves how we act towards our neighbors. No matter who is in office, they can neither force people to be good neighbors, nor can they stop them from being good neighbors. The most important thing that determines the peace and prosperity of the nation is the those who live in the nation. The salvation that our nation needs will never be legislated, it must come by changing the hearts and minds of the people in the nation. We don’t need a perfect government — we need widespread repentance. I need Jesus, you need Jesus — our nation needs Jesus.

Now, no matter how bad things look — I know this isn’t exactly a religious thing to say, but historically the United States has been a robust nation. We have had bad presidents before, and we have survived those who truly did abuse their power. People who debate which living president was the worst president our nation ever had are missing a history that included a number of shocking actions by presidents — and, the nation survived every one of them. I will give a few examples of terrible presidents.

Our second president, John Adams completely ignored the text of the First Amendment, taking away the freedom of speech and the freedom of the press by criminalizing statements that were critical of his government. This law was used to imprison congressmen who belonged to the opposing party, and to fine or imprison editors who supported his political opponent Thomas Jefferson. One of Jefferson’s acts as president was to pardon everybody who was arrested under the Sedition acts.

Our seventh president, Andrew Jackson was the leader of what should be called the most successful genocide of the 19th century. Jackson significantly reduced Native American land, and had the people removed. Jackson was famously responsible for the trail of tears, but we shouldn’t forget that the policy of removal included “gifts” of blankets and clothing worn by those who died of smallpox, and in many cases sending the military to kill every man woman and child. I know that many people dislike it when the Genocide word is used about a population within the bounds of the United States — but simple trip to Mexico or Central America shows us a visible difference between a land that was brutally colonized, and a land where the native population was removed.

The 17th president of the United States, Andrew Johnson, was a truly dreadful president; he was impeached for his political positions. You might remember, the 16th President was Abraham Lincoln. For Lincoln’s second term, he ran under the National Union party, and chose a Southern Democrat for his running mate; hoping that this would help the restoration of the Union. Unfortunately, this meant that when Lincoln was assassinated, the person who replaced him was far from Lincoln’s policies.

Congress was overwhelmingly dominated by Republicans at this point — as in, Republicans controlled enough seats to amend the constitution and override vetoes. All Johnson could do is delay what was already set in motion. The 13th, 14th and 15th amendments are called the civil war amendments. The 13th amendment made slavery unconstitutional, and is currently used to justify laws against human trafficking. The 14th amendment made it so that we no longer had large groups of stateless peoples living within the boundaries of the United States. The 14th amendment made it so representatives are based on the number of residents within the state, and that anybody born within the boundaries of the United States is a citizen, with all rights that belong to citizens, including the right to vote. At the time the 14th amendment was passed, we had two significant stateless people — the Native Americans, and the freed slaves. There are large numbers of people who’s citizenship and rights are dependent on this amendment. The 15th Amendment guarantees that voting is not limited by race, color, or prior status as a slave.

Johnson spend his presidency attempting to violate these new amendments of the constitution, and to keep them from being enforced — he literally spent his presidency fighting against the Constitution. When Justice meant making sure that freed slaves were given the rights they were promised, Johnson did everything he could do to obstruct justice — even firing federal workers who would follow and enforce the law to replace them with people who would not. While “Jim Crow” was not able to establish itself under Johnson’s presidency, it was as close to a legacy as he could have.

I know that people suggest that our nation, or the constitution cannot survive the wrong person being elected; I understand the fear behind these statements too. When I remember history, I realize that even though we have had presidents who behaved in an evil or criminal manner — presidents who actively opposed the constitution, both our nation and the constitution survived their presidency. No matter what bad things you might say about our candidates — I don’t believe either of them will be so evil as we’ve seen in the past. I don’t personally anticipate that we will elect a president who jails newspaper editors and members of congress who belong to the opposing party for  criticizing the President, nor do I expect the US government to actively commit genocide again. Yes, people have valid concerns — trust is low, and our government needs to work hard to earn back trust in nearly every demographic — but, there is no reason to think it is the end of the world.

There are no saviors on our ballot — there cannot be. We already have a savior, so don’t look to politicians for our salvation. Also know that it takes more than a bad president to destroy our nation and whatever good principles are part of our nation. There are over 300 million people, 50 states, over 3000 counties. Our courts have over 2 centuries of precedent to consider as they interpret our complex legal system. We imagine individuals having far more power than what they have, especially since ultimately most politics are local.

I guess what I want to say is don’t be afraid — first, because when we think about it, anxiety over an election is a terrible waste of creativity and imagination, but more importantly because the things so many people worry about shows a lack of faith in God. America survived president’s Adams, Jackson, and Johnson. Christianity survived Nero and countless other persecutors. The Soviet Union always had more Christians  than communists. I hear people suggest that our government can destroy Christianity — but, no government has done that. God is too strong to be defeated by a government.

Everybody, go vote; Make the best decision you can, but remember, no matter who wins Christ is our true hope for salvation. With God’s help our ancestors have already survived worse than anything this election will bring.

The man who robbed God

Reading: Nehemiah 13:4-14, Malachi 3:6-15

Nehemiah and Malachi are complementary texts, just as Haggai and Zechariah were complementary texts to the book of Ezra. We cannot interpret what Malachi means without giving him his proper audience and place in history, nor can we interpret whether what happens in the narrative is good or bad without the judgment of the prophets.

You already know, I respect Nehemiah as a reformer, and I believe that he worked to correct the injustices that had become part of the system; but we have to realize that Malachi speaks against injustice that existed while Nehemiah was governor. Malachi is opposed to the leadership offered by the priests and Levites; this includes not only Eliashib, but also the government as since the time of Ezra the governor was also a priest.

Malachi is a trial against the Priestly government of Israel, and of course the government is guilty. One might observe that this is obvious as if it were not guilty, it would not need reformation; but it would be good to take note of what the crimes were — so I will make an incomplete list of the charges Malachi had against Nehemiah’s government.

  • Making light of God’s name
  • Offering stolen and inferior sacrifices
  • Because of divorce (Does anybody remember where divorce came up in these passages?)
  • Accusing God of injustice
  • Calling evil good
  • “Can a man rob God?”

The reading from Malachi I chose was: “Can a man rob God” because Chapter 13 indites Eliashib for doing exactly this:  Robbing God of the tithes and offerings. Taking the whole of Malachi’s prophecy against the leadership of Israel, we see that God’s position on the temple system is beyond a call for reform, and a complete: “I wish you would shut the temple doors.”

I know that if you have ever heard a sermon on Malachi 3:8-12, it is unlikely that the preacher pointed to Eliashib, or the little detail that the whole book of Malachi is about the corruption of the Priests and Levites, or even what a Tithe was in the Old Testament. This is not an appropriate text for “Stewardship Sunday”; but it is a highly appropriate text for Reformation Sunday. As you might know today is Reformation Sunday. Luther was opposed to the way the Church in his time and place was compromising her theology in order to raise money. The lesson of Malachi calling out the corruption of the Temple system, which included misappropriating the tithe seems quite appropriate for Reformation Sunday.

Now, in order for us to understand what it means that the high priest took from the tithes, we have to realize what the tithes were in an Old Testament context. Tithes were not a voluntary gift, but a tax, generally on agricultural production. If one reads through the books of the Law searching for the rules and the use of the tithe, one quickly learns that there were several tithes.

There was the tithe that went to the tribe of Levi. The Levites were landless, their inheritance was bureaucratic positions and 10% of the nation’s agricultural production. The bureaucrats had a real stake in the wealth of the nation, for as the nation prospered they prospered. There was a tithe of a tithe, or 1% that went to the temple system. There was a tithe that went to public festivals and holidays, and there was a tithe to meet the needs of widows, orphans, and resident aliens.

When we talk about the tithes, we are not talking about a voluntary religious gift of 10%, but we are talking about the bulk of the national tax system. We are talking about how government employees are paid, we are talking about public events, we are talking about a national welfare system for the most desperately poor. Taking from the Tithes and offerings isn’t something that just harms the temple, it is something that disrupts the entire province.

Now imagine what happens in this case: The Levites, who are basically born to do government work, suddenly are not paid. Imagine what happens if the road worker is not paid, if the policemen and firemen are not paid, if the courthouse clerks are not paid. Imagine what happens if the tax collector is not paid. It doesn’t take much imagination to realize that those who can embezzle, or take bribes to survive will be corrupted, and those who cannot will seek day-labor instead of continuing to do necessary tasks such as maintaining the roads.

The leadership complains that God is being unjust, but this simple act made the entire nation unjust. Not do the people who needed fed because they were wards of the state starve, but suddenly every tax collector becomes an embezzler, every cop shakes down people for money, ever petty bureaucrat seeks bribes. A society that is supposed to be a model for justice becomes like a corrupt African nation. Where there is widespread corruption, justice and prosperity are both impossible.

The lesson the prophets teach us is that leaders are not perfect but, Nehemiah did something that we rarely see. Nehemiah address the corruption at the top. He assigns people to account for the Tithes, and make sure that it is properly distributed so that people can do their jobs. By creating accountability for those who are at the top of the system, Nehemiah makes the system less corruptible.

Now, the obvious lesson here is that government officials should be held accountable, and that there should be a system to hold people accountable at ever level. Our system of government points to a system of checks and balances, and when we have reform to make government officials and workers more accountable, we usually call it increasing transparency.

A less obvious lesson is found when Malachi tells the leadership that God wishes they would just close the doors of the Temple. When we read Nehemiah 13, Nehemiah is absolutely offended that the misappropriation of the tithes makes it so the temple cannot properly function missing that this would also shut down the nation and cause the deaths of a number of wards of state.

Nehemiah did the right thing, but his motive was the wrong one. He wanted to save the temple, which was a symbol of not only God’s presence but also the authority of the priests. Clearly, if the corruption was complete enough to disrupt the normal functions of the temple, all of society was disrupted. Nehemiah addressed the corruption, not because it was destroying Judah, but because it was destroying the symbol of Judah’s position as God’s favored people. It is not a surprise that God spoke through Malachi suggesting that they close the door of the temple forever if they cannot practice justice.

The lesson I want us to take home is that yes, a man can rob God. When I studied this passage, one of the commentaries that I read was Calvin’s commentary on Malachi. I was rather surprised when I read what he said:

God then, no doubt, is deprived by us of his right, when we are unkind to the poor, and refuse them aid in their necessity. We indeed thereby wrong men, and are cruel; but our crime is still more heinous, inasmuch as we are unfaithful stewards; for God deals more liberally with us than with others, for this end–that some portion of our abundance may come to the poor; and as he consecrates to their use what we abound in, we become guilty of sacrilege whenever we give not to our brethren what God commands us; for we know that he engages to repay, according to what he said in Proverbs 19:17, “He who gives to the poor lends to God”

We rob God when we miss the point in the same way Nehemiah did, and have our priorities all wrong. Eliashib’s crime was bad enough; but forgetting that humanity is creating in God’s image, and valuing a building over the people was even worse. The Temple was a great symbol,  but it was a symbol created by people. If the doors closed forever, God would still be God. If Nehemiah’s first thought was to the people who’s livelihoods were stolen instead of the temple, perhaps Malachi’s prophecy would not have been necessary.

We should also remember the promise in Malachi — that if we do not rob God, the windows of Heaven will open. When I consider the effects of corruption, I realize that while there is corruption it hardly matters if the windows of heaven are open. There are no shortage of nations that should be wealthy, but widespread corruption keeps them poor. I read this, and I wonder if God ever closed the windows of heaven. I wonder if selfish priests, and indifference to the inhabitants of the land was enough to destroy all the wealth that was promised.

No matter what, may we honor God, and may we show our love to God by our behavior towards those who are made in God’s image. If we live in this way, I have no doubt that we will not rob God.

Hearing Deuteronomy

Reading: Nehemiah 8:1-12, Deuteronomy 5:6-21

In our reading, we see that the people spent all morning hearing the Torah. The passage tells us that it was read from dawn until noon — a period of time that is roughly six hours. The passage also tells us that it was read with commentary so that the people might understand what was being read.

It is somewhat overwhelming to think about what they might have heard in this reading. Earlier I read what is called the Ten Commandments. I read it because for many people, it is the core of the Torah. Last week, I told you that my core of Torah is Genesis 1:27, where we learn that Humanity is created in God’s image. When Jesus was asked: “what is the greatest commandment?”, He answered: “Love the Lord your God with all your heart, soul, strength and mind — and the second is like it, love your neighbor as yourself.”

Looking into what this morning must be like, I first checked to see how long it would take to read through the first five books of the Bible — to read from: “In the beginning God Created the heavens and the earth” until you reach the final words of Deuteronomy:

Never since has there arisen a prophet in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face. He was unequaled for all the signs and wonders that the Lord sent him to perform in the land of Egypt against Pharaoh and all his servants and his entire land, and for all the mighty deeds and all the terrifying displays of power that Moses performed in the sight of all Israel. (Deuteronomy 34:10-12 NET)

When I checked, I saw that it would take 16 hours to read this entire section. Considering that not only was the Law of Moses read, but it was also explained so that the people could understand it, clearly only a subsection was read. I am still left to guess which subsection, and what would the people have taken away — but I do have a guess.

I think, most likely, Ezra’s reading is what we call Deuteronomy. Deuteronomy only takes a little under 3 hours to read, which would have given an equal amount of time for commentary and teaching. Genesis and Exodus are largely narrative, Leviticus is largely directed at the priests and Levites. Numbers gives the result of three censuses. Deuteronomy is the best book for telling the general population what it means to follow God’s law. If I were to plan this 6 hour event, I would use the narrative in Genesis and Exodus to explain the references in Deuteronomy, but Deuteronomy would be the passage that was read — the rest would be a resource.

Now that I made a guess about what might have been read — I can tell you what comes out when I listen to Deuteronomy: What I hear as a continuing refrain is the words — “Remember when you were slaves in Egypt,” or in other cases “Remember when you were strangers in Egypt.” I would like to read a number of these to you so you can hear some of what I heard.

I will start with Deuteronomy 5 — the Ten Commandments. One of the laws was: “Remember the Sabbath”, and it goes on to say that foreigners are to be given a Sabbath as well as everybody else, slaves are to be given the Sabbath as well as the free. The reason given, if you recall is: `Remember you were a slave in Egypt.” Rest is not a religious obligation, it is a physiological need — and the law demands that everybody be given this. Nobody is to be so helpless that they lose the right to rest.

Deuteronomy 10:17-22 reads:

17 For the Lord your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great, mighty, and awesome God who is unbiased and takes no bribe, 18 who justly treats the orphan and widow, and who loves resident foreigners, giving them food and clothing. 19 So you must love the resident foreigner because you were foreigners in the land of Egypt. 20 Revere the Lord your God, serve him, be loyal to him and take oaths only in his name. 21 He is the one you should praise; he is your God, the one who has done these great and awesome things for you that you have seen. 22 When your ancestors went down to Egypt, they numbered only seventy, but now the Lord your God has made you as numerous as the stars of the sky. (NET)

When the people of Israel first went to Egypt, they were economic refugees. Jacob, his children, grandchildren and their families were invited to settle in Goshen by the Pharaoh. Egypt treated Jacob and his family with every kindness, supplying them with food when they needed food and offering them ample and good land to graze their livestock. Deuteronomy reminds the people of Israel that they were once foreigners in a strange land, and their survival as a people was dependent upon the kindness of Egypt — and, when they needed it they received this kindness. In other parts of Deuteronomy, the people of Israel are told never to hate the Egyptian, out of memory of this act of kindness.

In Deuteronomy 15, we learn that after a period of seven years, slaves are to be emancipated, and when they are emancipated they are to be supplied generously from the wealth of the master. The reason for this is that the people are to remember when they were slaves in Egypt. The descendants of Jacob eventually became slaves to the Egyptians, and this was a generational slavery, with no hope of escape. It took an act of God to release those enslaved by the Egyptians — so there is a call to remember this, and have compassion.

Deuteronomy 24 again reminds the people of Israel that they were once slaves in Egypt. They are commanded to remember this whenever a foreigner or widow seeks justice. They are also told to remember this if a widow ever needs a loan — “Do not take a widow’s garment as security for a loan” is the exact words of Deuteronomy 24:17. It goes on to command not carefully harvesting everything that is grown, but to leave something in the fields and vineyards for landless gleaners — saying that this is for the widow, the orphan, and the foreigner — the reason being again: “Remember when you were slaves in Egypt.”

Remember when you were in Egypt is a reoccurring phrase in Deuteronomy. I only gave a few examples; but the point is that when I listen, I hear again and again, remember when you were in Egypt. Every Sabbath is a memory that we need rest, and slaves were not given rest,therefor we should behave differently. Every Passover is a memory that the people were once slaves, every feast of Booths is a memory that they wondered in the wilderness as a landless people for 40 years after they escaped slavery.

Remembering where we came from, and remembering what our ancestors faced is very important. Every festival is a memory, when a justification is given for a law, it is a memory. Deuteronomy is a system of law that calls for empathy. Remember when your ancestors faced famine, and risked being wiped out — remember, somebody showed mercy on them; be merciful in the same way. Remember when your ancestors were powerless, and somebody took advantage of them? Don’t take advantage of the powerless — treat them better than your ancestors were treated. In Deuteronomy, justice is about treating the poor, the landless, and the powerless with empathy. Deuteronomy is about remembering the history of Israel, and seeing what their ancestors overcame whenever we see somebody struggling in life.

When Ezra read the law, the law reminded the people of their common story, and it reminded them that the had a common experience that brings them to compassion. They were taught a sense of justice that is defined by compassion and mercy; and always remembering that we come from a long line of people who needed compassion — if they had not received it, perhaps we would not even have been born. We also come from a long line of people who have been oppressed — in honor of those ancestors, we should not oppress others. The lesson of the Torah is simple; it is the lesson we call the golden rule, that we do to others as we would have them do to us; and of course its corollary — that we not do to them what we would not want done to us.

Isaiah 31: Do not put your faith in Egypt

Reading: Isaiah 31

Last week, I spoke about Nehemiah’s work to rebuild Jerusalem. Today in Sunday School, we are still talking about Nehemiah. Today I choose to remind everybody one of the things that brought the fall of Jerusalem. Some of the later kings such as Hezekiah worked to turn the nation back to God, but when it came to security, they believed in foreign armies. The best of the kings, Josiah, failed in this and his attempt to play international war politics likely hastened Nebuchadnezzar’s armies burning Jerusalem.

I read this, because I feel that we are in a similar position. I believe that many in the church have been trying to make alliances with the world, and sometimes these have been to our own destruction. I have something that I must say and I cannot say it without talking about politics. Do not take anything I say as an endorsement of a candidate. Not only does the Johnson amendment say that I cannot, but I would not want to even if I could. I don’t believe we can find salvation in government, I believe Salvation is God’s domain. I am also perfectly aware that if I told you how to vote, you’d roll your eyes and make up your own mind. Anyways, I’m afraid that no matter how I vote, I’m going to feel quite dirty.

You see, my faith teaches me that Humanity, both men and women, is created in God’s image. I believe that the way we speak and act towards others either honors or dishonors God’s image. If you want to know how important images are, think about how much anger there is when somebody burns a flag in protest. Think about how offended we are when somebody vandalizes a cross. If we truly believed, as scripture teaches in both the Old and New Testaments, that humans are the Image of God, we would be just as offended when someone is dehumanized as when somebody burns a flag. This understanding shapes my personal sense of morality and my political views. As you might guess, I have much to be offended over. I refuse to argue about which politician is less offensive. To endorse a politician would be to compromise one of my core beliefs. Anything I might say against one is not intended to excuse the other.

I am, like everybody, a product of my background. My mom’s family were democrats, my dad’s family were Republicans. My dad’s family had been republicans since about the time of Lincoln. Many of my heroes were the people were the abolitionist voices of the early Republican party such as the Quaker poet John Greenleaf Whittier, and the former slave Fredric Douglas. I think that some of the greatest advancements in human rights were the civil war amendments, which gave full rights to citizenship to the stateless people living in the borders of the US: At that point, the displaced Native Americans and the freed slaves, and the children of the freed slaves were all stateless people without the rights of a citizen. I feel that the 19th amendment, granting the same rights to women that men have such as participating in elections was equally important. These amendments are the successes of the Republican party. I am proud of these successes.

I don’t remember when Jimmy Carter was president — I do know I deeply respect him. I was born the year Jerry Falwell became politically active. I grew up with Christian media. I’ve listened to Christian radio and when I followed news, I paid attention to the Christian commentary. I grew up in Kansas District 1, where democrats do not bother to nominate a candidate. Kansas is a closed primary state, meaning only Republicans get to vote in a meaningful election if they live in the Western half of Kansas; this means my mom eventually joined the Republican party and got a vote. Needless to say, I was pretty embedded.

In the 2000 election season, I became disillusioned with the religious right. That year, I listened to Christian Radio and followed some other sources. I listened to the issues that were important to Christians; and, having a pretty good idea what scripture said and what I believed, I came to wonder if there were not some compromises being made. I watched the election on TV, and listened to the Christian radio commentary the day after the election. I heard the names listed, and whether it was a victory for God, or where God’s side was defeated. I noticed God’s side seemed to be a party, and it had nothing to do whether the person elected was of good Christian character or worldly. I began to suspect that the religious right was being used by politicians and then ignored. In 2000, the whole idea that Christians had a real influence in making our government had dissolved, because the people trying to promote Christian influence were promoting party above character to Christians everywhere. It was like they really believed that God didn’t know what God thought this year until the Republican party platform came out.
Since 2000, my view of the culture war has been that it is the wrong fight. Both of our political parties are, ultimately, secular. They are both part of the world. As much as I would like everybody to see how sacred human life is, no law will make this happen. As much as I’d like to see justice in the world, no law will cause people to seek justice. Laws, at most, cause people to avoid punishment. The culture war is unwinable by the use of government. I’ve known this for 16 years now.

We’ve seen the walls we built crumble, our churches are empty, and when people outside the church talk about what Christians believe, they make a list of political positions, completely missing the gospel. Jerusalem is burning the temple is in ruins, and the wall has fallen down. For 16 years, I feel like I’ve watched the church crumble, while it’s spokesmen tried to sell a part of the world as part of the church. I’ve watched more and more compromises, to the point that you can be accused of being on the wrong side if you quote the wrong scripture. When we put what is politically convenient before what scripture teaches, our walls have crumbled. The Babylonians have come because we put our faith in outside chariots. I see my Jerusalem burning.

Now things are more disturbing than ever. As you cannot possibly have missed, one of the candidates said some very unfortunate things in interviews held before he considered running for president. Now, these unfortunate things are not news; he says unfortunate and vulgar things on a very regular basis; what came out of his mouth was a very real discussion during the nomination process. The party, apparently with the support of the religious right, minus Max Lucado and Russell Moore, was able to put up with vulgarity and support his nomination.

The interviews that have been released have a presidential candidate bragging that he can commit sexual assault because he is famous. He brags in a way that suggests he does so whenever he likes. Old interviews also have him saying that he walks into the dressing room of beauty pageants, because he can. I will not quote, and I do not want to go into detail because bluntly, I feel like we should have known what we were getting. I consider a political party to be part of the world, and I take no religious offense when the world acts like the world. In this case, I leave judgment to the courts.

There is a place where I step in and make my judgment. I might not be a national voice but there are people who call me pastor. My realm is the church. I don’t care who gets elected, I do care about destroying the reputation of Christianity. I do not stand accusing a man who condemns himself, but those who defend what he has claimed to do. The public Christians, who spoke to my younger self about wanting a more Christian America, and leaders who would be good for our society are now saying things such as bragging about sexual assault is no big deal, simply macho talk. The worst I’ve heard is one who actually said that groping a woman without her consent is not sexual assault. Unfortunately, those who listen to Christian talk radio or watch Christian television are hearing our moral authorities telling us that this is no big deal. The spokesmen for the church cannot become rape-apologist. There is no prize worth such compromise.

I know one of the biggest reasons that people jump to defend the nominee is fear. There is a strong sense that we are less secure than we once were. Statistics tell us that most of this is a matter of perception. Before 1994, communities were isolated by geography. It was unusual that what happened in one city would be news in another. Today, if four people are shot in Italy, it is news here in Indiana. I have Facebook friends that I keep up with in China, Russia, Denmark and South Africa. I am as likely to get my news about the United States from the BBC as I am from CBS. The world is so connected that my international friends know when a tornado hits within 100 miles of where I live; even if I never mentioned the weather. Violent crime is less common than it was 30 years ago, but due to the information revolution the entire world is now our community.

We do however have a safety issue that is not just perception. Our government estimates that about 1 out of 5 women have been sexually assaulted. We now have people who are seen as moral leaders, people who are known to support family values and strive to maintain an America that is a good nation to raise children saying that bragging about groping women without permission is simply macho talk. I’ve heard one go so far as to say that groping really isn’t so bad. One out of five women have been sexually assaulted, and people are so desperate to get a candidate into office that they deny sexual assault is a bad thing. The church can survive Nero, and the worst persecution the world can offer; but if those who are seen as God’s prophets become rape-apologists because that is compromise they have to pay for a little political influence they do cause God’s name to be blasphemed. They are blaspheming God’s name themselves.

Again, I endorse no-one. Vote your conscience. Vote issues if you cannot vote for a person. No matter who you support, don’t be a rape-apologist. Some of the women you know have been assaulted. One fifth of American women is over 31 million people. If we marginalize those who have suffered violence at the hands of the powerful, in order to defend the powerful, we are not acting like the church, but quite the opposite. No matter who you want to win, it is not worth throwing a large group of people under the bus for a Pyrrhic victory.

We as Christians need to consider how we can become sensitive to those who’s wounds have been freshly opened by truly evil rhetoric. When we speak, we must remember some of the people who hear us have deep pain in their lives. If one must choose between an election, and the integrity of the church, the choice must be the church. When we speak, we must be careful to speak with grace. We must remember that words can hurt. I do indeed feel that the church is under attack. I feel Jerusalem has been set on fire. I regret that those burning our great city are not seen as invaders, but it is those claiming to speak for God.